Background & History
Police existed since ancient times and has historical and international background. The history of police in Egypt dates back to several thousand years ago. In different eras and during the beginning of Islam it was called “Al as” which means to guard, patrol and gain information about suspicious people.
During the time of prophet Mohammad(peace be upon him), one of his companions named Sad bin Waqas was appointed as head of city policing unit; during the caliphate of Abubakr Siddique (Peace be upon him), Abdullah Bin Massoud was appointed as head of this unit to undertake security responsibilities. As populations, incidents, and criminal cases were increased in the cities; and roads, highways and economic activities were developed, police was established as an organized force to control and prevent from crimes.
In most countries of the world this organization was called “police” and with the passage of times, the word “police” became an international term.
In our country, Afghanistan, for the first time in 1315 (1936) police structure was established and called Police Training Center. German instructors used to provide trainings in this center which was established in Mahtab Qala (near Pol-e- Sokhta) area of Kabul. Before and during the leadership of King Amanullah Khan, Police had a limited structure and was called “Security”.
Graduates of this training center, after undergoing 9 months or one year training, used to gain the title of “Sobadar” . police headquarter was called” Kotwali” and police commanders who were called “Kotwal” used to perform their duties under the guidance of governors. Finally after several graduation terms from this training center, it was decided to establish an organization called Security Department within the Ministry of Interior to ensure better command and control of this force. This department remained under the same name from 1321 (1942) to 1326 (1947).
In 1947, Security Department was renamed with Police and Gendarmes General Command. Police was responsible for ensuring internal security in the cities and localities while Gendarmes were responsible for ensuring security in the borders of the country.
“Police” is an internationally accepted term and police personnel are responsible for enforcing law, and protecting peace and order in a country. Before 1326 (1947) many qualified officers, after graduating from Military faculty and Military University, were assigned to serve people after joining the Police Training Centers for a while. Finally the Police Academy was established in Afshar area of Kabul to provide better and more training for police. Three types of trainings used to be provided in this academy that time.
- Three years education at bachelor’s level to train police as Second Lieutenant
- Three years study for 12th grade graduates to train them as Senior Sergeants
- 9 months training for 6th grade graduates to train and assign them as sergeants. These trainings were provided by German instructors.
In 1352 (1973), during the republic government of the martyred Dawoud Khan, some applicable laws and regulations were revoked, amended or removed. The three years police training was also among these regulations and was replaced with the following trainings:
- High school(12th grade) graduates, who loved their country, had no criminal background, passed the Kankor examination and medical and physical fitness test, and had no affiliation with political parties, were qualified to join the academy. After undergoing a training term, they used to graduate as third sergeants to serve for a certain term. After serving for a certain term, they used to attend the second class of the academy. They had to pass the third class in the same way and after passing the tests, they used to graduate as Second Lieutenants.
- Graduates of 9th class were graduated as third sergeants after undergoing 9 months trainings. Similarly every four years they were promoted as Second or First Sergeant. After completing some courses, they were qualified to be promoted as Lieutenant.
- Police Uniform had a dark steel color and their coat had no belt
- Generals who used to wear black hat with a black pant and steel color coat were identified by distinct marks.
- Police were led and commanded by the Commander of Police & Gendarme
General Sub Directorates of Security, Traffic, Passport, Border Force, Human resource, Technical unit, Communication, Prisons Unit, Criminal Investigation Unit, and Intelligence Unit were included in the Police structure. During that period of time, administrative hierarchy was given special attention and importance.
-1 after 7 Sawr 1357 (27 April 1976), the word “Police” was replaced with “Sarandoy”. High school graduate were qualified to undergo three years study in the Sarandoy Academy and graduate as second lieutenant. This academy used to provide trainings in the areas of security, criminal issues, border protection, Traffic and political issues.
2- Rank signs remained unaltered, big rank signs and uniform color were changed.
3- The title of “Police and Gendarme Command” existed until December 27, 1979, but later it was replaced with the Deputy Ministry of Security and in the years around 1369 (1990), this organization was named as First Deputy Ministry.
In October 1992, the Title “Sarandoy” was again replaced with “Police” which was led by the General Commander of Police and Gendarme.
4- although like many other government institutions, the Ministry of Interior and Police were also disintegrated as result of wars; but after the interim government, police started to gradually recover from problems and different challenges which had left serious material and moral impacts on the police service of the country; Major reforms have been started but they are not sufficient and cannot meet the professionalization needs of police.
Police structure continued to be called as Police & Gendarme Command for a while; but later it was called First Deputy Ministry and in 1388 (2009), it was named as Senior Deputy Ministry for Security which includes law enforcement, public protection and civil order forces.
In 2009, The Ministry of Interior had four deputies for security, administration and support, counter narcotics and policy & strategy. Each deputy ministry has different departments to perform their specific duties.